A recent groundbreaking study indicates that neurological disorders are a significant global health challenge, ranking as the second-highest cause of death and the leading cause of disability worldwide, and the number of individuals grappling with brain-related diseases is set to double by the year 2050. Given this alarming trajectory, aspiring doctors with a passion for making a profound impact on patient’s lives would be wise to consider a career in neurology.

So, read on as we explore the path to becoming a doctor in the U.S., focusing specifically on how to become a neurologist.

What Is a Neurologist?

A neurologist is a highly specialized doctor who focuses on diagnosing and treating disorders that affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. They are experts in a wide range of conditions that affect muscles, cognitive functions, and behavior.

It’s important to clarify that neurologists are different from neurosurgeons. Although they are both involved in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions and disorders related to the system, neurosurgeons are specially trained to perform surgical interventions, while neurologists primarily focus on non-surgical methods.

What Does a Neurologist Do?

Neurologists possess expertise in diagnosing complex neurological disorders through comprehensive assessments. This includes conducting a detailed history-taking and physical examination, evaluating various aspects such as mental status, vision, speech, strength, sensation, coordination, reflexes, and gait. They utilize a range of tests and imaging techniques to assist in diagnosis, including:

  • Computed tomography (CT) or computer-assisted tomography (CAT) scans
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • Nerve conduction studies and electromyography (NCS/EMG)
  • Lumbar puncture (LP) for cerebral spinal fluid analysis

Additionally, neurologists, both generalists and those with specialized training, perform various procedures, including:

  • Lumbar puncture (LP)
  • Nerve conduction studies and electromyography (NCS/EMG)
  • Intraoperative brain and spine monitoring
  • Autonomic testing
  • Endovascular procedures, including angiograms and coiling of aneurysms
  • Botulinum toxin injections
  • Skin and muscle biopsies

Although neurologists do not perform brain or spinal cord surgery, they often work closely with neurosurgeons, sometimes even sharing the operating room, for certain conditions. This collaborative approach ensures comprehensive care for patients with complex neurological issues.

How To Become a Neurologist

Becoming a neurologist is a challenging but fulfilling journey that demands devotion, persistent learning, and an authentic love for the field of neurology. In this article, we will outline the necessary steps to become a neurologist, keeping in mind that each person’s path may have its own distinct variations influenced by specific program prerequisites and personal situations.

Get a bachelor’s degree

Becoming a neurologist begins with enrolling in a four-year college or university to pursue a bachelor’s degree. While popular majors include biology or chemistry, there isn’t a rigid requirement for a specific field of study.

This period of undergraduate education is an opportunity to cultivate a strong foundation in the sciences, including biology, chemistry, and mathematics, which form the bedrock of medical studies.

Study and pass the MCAT

Generally, all aspiring doctors, including neurologists, must take the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) before applying for medical school. Some choose to do so by the end of their bachelor studies, whereas others might do so later, especially if they’re considering taking some time off before enrolling in medical school.

The MCAT assessment comprises four distinct sections:

  • Fundamentals of biological and biochemical systems
  • Principles of chemical and physical foundations in biological systems
  • Psychological, social, and biological aspects of behavior
  • Critical analysis and reasoning aptitude

The initial three sections are structured around core concepts, evaluating the students’ understanding of pivotal scientific principles. The last focuses on problem-solving skills, critical thinking abilities, and familiarity with the natural, behavioral, and social sciences crucial to medical practice. 

Complete a four-year medical school program

Upon completing the necessary prerequisites for medical school, including a bachelor’s degree and a solid MCAT score, the next phase is enrollment in a four-year medical program.

The length of medical school programs is specifically designed to focus on didactic instruction for basic medical sciences during the first two years. During this time, students blend lecture-based learning and hands-on laboratory work, exploring various subjects like anatomy, pathology, microbiology, pharmacology, and biochemistry.

Then, medical education transitions from the classroom to the clinical setting throughout the next two years. Students embark on clinical rotations at teaching hospitals, immersing themselves in hands-on patient care. The third year encompasses mandatory rotations, whereas the fourth year is predominantly devoted to elective rotations. This way, students gain invaluable experience, actively participating in patient care under the supervision of residents and attending physicians.

Complete a medical residency program 

The next step is neurologist residency, an essential component of the neurologist training. Neurology residency programs typically consist of a minimum of four years, with the first year focusing on internal medicine and the remaining three years focusing on neurology. Residents gain invaluable experience diagnosing and managing various medical conditions during this period.

Following the preliminary year, the subsequent three years of the residency are dedicated exclusively to neurology. Here, residents explore the intricate side of neurological disorders, developing their diagnostic skills and refining their treatment approaches. This rigorous training equips aspiring neurologists with the expertise and confidence they need to provide exceptional care to patients with complex neurological conditions.

Secure a fellowship

Although it’s not part of the neurologist requirements, fellowship programs are an excellent additional step to helping refine neurologist skills. These training programs can extend to four years and are reserved for the most dedicated and accomplished neurology residents. 

Residency programs and fellowships are important components of a neurologist’s training, but they have some differences. While residencies offer a more general neurologist education, fellowships provide specialized training in specific areas such as brain injury medicine, clinical neurophysiology, epilepsy, neurocritical care, and other subfields. This additional training period gives fellow doctors a unique opportunity to become true experts in their chosen area of specialization.

Become licensed

All types of neurologists must obtain a medical license to practice medicine. This step demands the successful completion of several crucial prerequisites. Firstly, candidates must have graduated from an accredited medical school program, either earning a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree or a Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) degree. Then, candidates must navigate the rigorous evaluation set forth by the respective licensing boards.

For MDs, this entails passing all the steps of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), a series of comprehensive assessments that meticulously evaluate their depth of medical knowledge and clinical skills. This demanding examination sequence ensures that physicians possess the proficiency and competence required for practicing medicine. On the other hand, DOs must complete the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX) levels, tailored to assess osteopathic medical principles and practices.

Once these educational and evaluative criteria are met, candidates can apply for and receive their medical license. This licensure grants them the legal authority to engage in the independent practice of medicine, enabling them to diagnose, treat, and care for patients as neurologists.

Become board certified

At this point, through all the steps above, you will have become a neurologist. However, although board certification isn’t a compulsory prerequisite for licensure, it holds considerable weight in the medical community.

Many employers see board certification as a reflection of a neurologist’s expertise and commitment to continual learning. This prestigious recognition is awarded by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN). Moreover, to retain this certification, neurologists are required to engage in ongoing medical education. This ensures they stay updated with the latest advancements in the field, showcasing their dedication to providing the highest standard of care.

Essential Skills of a Neurologist 


A neurologist must possess the necessary skills and traits that ensure they provide optimal care to their patients. These abilities not only enable accurate diagnosis and effective treatment but also foster trust and confidence in the physician-patient relationship.

Neurologist schooling and education stand as a reliable avenue for developing these vital skills, ensuring practitioners are well-equipped to navigate the complexities of neurological care. Some of the skills and traits needed include:

  • Diagnostic proficiency—providing accurate identification of various neurological conditions and illnesses.
  • Clinical analysis skills—ensuring proper evaluation of patient data and symptoms to determine appropriate courses of action.
  • Effective communication skills—enabling neurologists to convey complex medical information to patients, family members, and fellow healthcare professionals.
  • Decision-making skills—based on a thorough assessment of patient data and current research.
  • Empathetic care—demonstrating compassion and providing emotional support to patients, recognizing the profound impact of neurological conditions on their lives.

Career Growth and Opportunities

A neurologist’s career path is dynamic, offering a range of opportunities for growth and specialization. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the overall employment outlook for physicians and surgeons, a category encompassing neurologists given their status as medical doctors, is projected to experience a steady growth of 3% from 2022 to 2032. 

Additionally, neurologists can further specialize in areas like epilepsy, neurocritical care, neuroimaging, neuromuscular disorders, neuro-oncology, and more. Or, they can pursue academic careers, working in universities or research institutions. This involves teaching medical students, conducting research, and often combining clinical practice with scholarly activities. Neurologists can also establish their private practices, providing specialized care to patients. This offers autonomy and the potential for financial rewards, especially for those with established reputations.

In some instances, experienced neurologists may also take on leadership positions within healthcare organizations, such as department chairs, medical directors or administrators, or even engage in clinical or basic research to advance the understanding and treatment of neurological disorders. This may involve conducting clinical trials, laboratory research, or translational studies.

Overall, the diverse range of neurologist career options allows professionals to tailor their paths to align with their interests, strengths, and goals. Continuous learning, networking, and seeking out opportunities for specialization can lead to a fulfilling and impactful career in neurology.

The Financial Perspective


From a financial perspective, neurology offers substantial rewards. According to data from BLS, neurologists command a mean annual wage of $255,510, reflecting the advanced skills and expertise required in this specialized medical field.

For those seeking top earning potential, specific industries stand out. Outpatient care centers offer the highest salaries, with an impressive annual mean wage of $406,380. Offices of physicians also provide competitive compensation at $258,100 annually, as well as general medical and surgical hospitals with a mean annual wage of $251,590, showcasing the diverse range of settings where neurologists can thrive financially. 

Additionally, BLS data highlights specific states where neurologists can secure the highest earning opportunities. Delaware, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, and New Hampshire emerge as the leading states in terms of compensation, affirming that geographical location can significantly impact earning potential in the field of neurology.

Challenges and Considerations

Deciding to pursue a career in neurology comes with a set of challenges. The journey to becoming a neurologist is a long one, and the learning process continues well into the profession, necessitating a commitment to staying updated with the latest advancements and discoveries in the field.

The realm of neurology naturally involves dealing with complex conditions, requiring a deep understanding of the nervous system, among other essential skills and traits. Additionally, the profession often demands long working hours, which can affect your work-life balance and potentially lead to stress.

Nevertheless, with a genuine passion for neurology, hard work, wise time management, realistic goal-setting, and a focus on personal well-being, overcoming these challenges and thriving in this fulfilling field is attainable.

The Bottom Line

As neurological disorders persist as a significant threat, the role of neurologists has never been more vital. If you’re driven by a passion to make a meaningful difference in the lives of others and aspire to be at the forefront of cutting-edge advancements in neurological care, then explore our medical school and take the first step toward joining the ranks of dedicated neurologists.


How long does it take to become a neurologist?

Becoming a neurologist is a lengthy process that typically takes 12 years of education and training after high school, including four years of undergraduate studies, another four years of medical school, and approximately four years of residency.

How long is neurology residency?

Neurology residency is a 4-year program, with the first year focused on internal medicine and the next three years focused on neurology.

Is neurology hard?

Neurology is generally considered a challenging field due to the complexity of the nervous system and the wide range of conditions neurologists deal with. However, with a strong work ethic, determination, and a genuine passion for neurology, it is entirely possible to excel in this field.

Is neurology hard to get into?

With the right qualifications, like completing medical school with a satisfactory GPA, securing a spot in neurology isn’t overly difficult. Data from 2022 shows that out of 562 MD seniors who applied for neurology residency, only 13 didn’t match, suggesting that by showing dedication and meeting the necessary criteria, all aspiring neurologists have a good chance of entering the field.

What degree is best for neurology?

The best degree for aspiring neurologists is one in a relevant field of science, such as biology or chemistry, providing a solid foundation for medical school and subsequent training in neurology.

Is it worth it to become a neurologist?

Becoming a neurologist can be a highly rewarding career choice, with the opportunity to make a significant impact on the lives of others, as well as providing a satisfactory salary and a range of job opportunities.

Is neurology a good career path?

Generally, yes. Despite some challenges along the way, neurology is a fulfilling and meaningful career path for all individuals passionate about understanding and treating disorders related to the nervous system.