Individuals contemplating a medical career have likely grappled with the fundamental question of why they aspire to become a doctor. However, beyond this pivotal question lies a spectrum of equally crucial considerations that demand attention to ensure a well-informed decision about their future. One such query often at the forefront of their minds is, “How long is medical school?”

Well, compared to most other career paths, it is a long journey, but we’re here to tell you all about it. So, read on to gain a thorough understanding of the path leading to a medical profession and the time investment it entails.

The Pre-Medical Phase: Setting the Foundation

The pre-medical phase marks the initial step toward a medical career. It typically lasts four years—the standard length for many undergraduate degree programs. During this time, aspiring doctors typically focus on obtaining a solid educational foundation in biological and physical sciences. Therefore, many aspiring physicians pursue bachelor’s degrees in chemistry, biology, physics, or other natural sciences or healthcare programs. They may also gain some hands-on experience through volunteer work or internships at hospitals or clinics during this period.

Some medical schools accept applicants without a science-related degree, but even in those cases, applicants still need to have completed specific prerequisite classes. Some standard requirements include one year or semester of:

  • General biology
  • General chemistry
  • Organic chemistry
  • Physics
  • English
  • Mathematics in either calculus or statistics

However, before moving on to the next phase, aspiring physicians also spend considerable time preparing for and taking the MCAT (Medical College Admission Test). This standardized exam assesses their readiness for medical school, and its scores play a crucial role in the application process. Given the intense competition for admission to medical schools, a strong MCAT score, combined with the solid foundation acquired during the pre-medical phase, can be the pivotal factor that sets applicants apart.

Medical School: A Four-Year Commitment


The subsequent phase in a physician’s schooling years is focused on medical school. Upon the completion of medical school, graduates are conferred with a medical degree and are granted the distinguished titles of either Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO).

This period, which lasts for four years, is dedicated to intense study at a specialized institution within a university entirely committed to the study of medicine. In two distinct phases, students receive advanced training and education crucial for becoming licensed medical doctors or physicians. The first two years cover basic sciences, whereas the remaining two are in clinical rotations.

Year 1 & 2: Basic sciences

In the initial two years of medical school, a blend of classroom lectures and laboratory sessions forms the core of the curriculum. Students engage in courses encompassing fundamental sciences such as anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, histology, pathology, and pharmacology. Additionally, they acquire essential skills in patient interviewing and examination.

Traditionally, students enroll in four or five concurrent courses spanning various disciplines. However, some institutions may adopt an intensive approach, dedicating shorter periods, typically three to four weeks, to a singular subject before transitioning to the next.

By the end of the second year, students usually sit for the USMLE Step 1 examination. This exam is a comprehensive one-day assessment consisting of seven 60-minute segments. It evaluates your comprehension and application of crucial concepts in the foundational sciences of medicine, particularly emphasizing the principles and mechanisms underlying health, disease, and modes of therapy. It ensures proficiency in the sciences essential for safe and adept medical practice and the scientific principles required for ongoing competence through lifelong learning.

Year 3 & 4: Clinical rotations

In medical school’s third and fourth years, students mainly engage in clinical rotations at hospitals and clinics. During rotations, students work alongside residents specializing in surgery, pediatrics, internal medicine, or psychiatry. Additionally, they take the USMLE Step 2 CK at the end of the third year or during the fourth year and are eligible to take the Step 3 examination after graduating from medical school.

Although some rotations, such as internal medicine, are mandatory across all programs, others have distinct requirements. The duration of each rotation varies based on the hospital’s specific focus or strengths. For instance, the surgery rotation might span four weeks at one school and extend to four months at another.

Keep in mind that while clinical rotations won’t equip you with enough expertise to practice in a specialized field, they will provide you with a broad foundation of knowledge and assist you in exploring potential career options.

Residency: Where Specialization Begins


After completing medical school, graduates enter the residency phase, where specialization truly begins.

Residency typically lasts 3 to 7 years, though the durations vary depending on the specialty. Family practice, internal medicine, and pediatrics usually require three years. However, an additional transitional or preliminary year is necessary for specializations like dermatology, anesthesiology, and neurology. Psychiatry and pathology entail four years of residency, while general surgery extends to five years. The specialized field of neurological surgery demands an extensive six-year residency period, and so on.

This phase involves intensive training under the supervision of experienced physicians. Residents work in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare settings, gaining in-depth knowledge and skills in their chosen fields. The workload can be demanding, with long shifts and on-call duties, as residents progressively take on more responsibilities. However, this phase is crucial for developing clinical expertise and preparing doctors for independent practice in their chosen specialties.

Factors Influencing the Duration of Medical School


The duration of medical school is subject to various factors, which we will outline below. However, it’s crucial to emphasize that the main objective remains to provide students with thorough training. Therefore, in this context, the duration of medical education becomes less significant.

Degree program

Different medical schools may have variations in their curriculum structures. Some schools may follow a traditional four-year program, while others may have accelerated programs or integrated undergraduate and medical school programs. These variations can impact the overall duration of medical education.

Additionally, some medical schools offer combined degree programs, such as MD/PhD or MD/MBA, which integrate additional training or coursework into the medical curriculum. These programs can extend the length of medical education beyond the standard four years.

Extended training for specializations

Certain medical specialties, like surgery or neurosurgery, require longer residency programs than others. For example, general surgery typically involves a five-year residency, while neurosurgery requires six or more years.

Additionally, students engaged in significant research endeavors may take additional years to complete advanced degrees or gain extensive research experience before entering clinical practice. This can prolong the overall duration of their medical education.

Individual pace of learning

Some students may need additional time during certain phases of their education to deepen their understanding of specific subjects or to address personal or academic needs. This can result in a longer overall duration of medical education.

Additionally, the length also hinges on students’ progress in passing essential examinations. Some individuals may require additional time to prepare and succeed in these assessments, potentially extending the overall length of their medical education.

It’s imperative to acknowledge that policies and prerequisites outlined by medical licensing boards and accrediting bodies play a pivotal role in this process. For instance, in many cases, the successful completion of licensing exams like the USMLE is a critical prerequisite for advancing through various stages of medical education.

Challenges of Medical School and How To Overcome Them

Becoming a doctor is a long and challenging process, and students often overlook the difficulties that come with each step. Medical school itself is an intense journey that presents its own set of challenges. The amount of information to be absorbed is immense, and the pressure of high-stakes exams, paired with the emotional toll of dealing with patients’ health issues, can be overwhelming.

Moreover, the long study and clinical rotations hours can lead to burnout and fatigue, making it difficult to balance academics, clinical experience, and personal life. The emotional weight of witnessing illness and sometimes tragic outcomes can also affect students’ mental well-being.

To navigate these challenges and make your medical school journey more manageable, consider the following study tips for medical students:

  • Prioritize tasks, create a study schedule, and allocate time for self-care and relaxation.
  • Connect with peers, professors, and mentors who can provide guidance, emotional support, and valuable insights.
  • Join study groups or participate in peer learning to enhance understanding and retention of complex materials.
  • Maintain physical and mental health through regular exercise, balanced nutrition, and adequate sleep.
  • Do not hesitate to seek mental health support through counseling, therapy, or peer support groups to address the emotional challenges.
  • Acknowledge that it’s okay to struggle and that perfection is not attainable.
  • Be kind to yourself and understand that setbacks are a normal part of the learning process.
  • Experiment with different study methods to find what works best for you.
  • Take advantage of resources provided by the medical school, such as library facilities, online databases, and educational technology.

The Bottom Line

When reflecting on the length of medical school and the overall extensive journey that becoming a doctor encompasses, it’s essential to acknowledge that this duration is a testament to the profound power and responsibility of being a healthcare professional. It’s crucial to ensure that those who bear the title of “doctor” are thoroughly equipped and prepared for it.

So, if you want to take this monumental step toward becoming a healthcare practitioner, there’s no better time than now. Begin your journey by exploring our medical school and embark on the path toward a fulfilling career in medicine.


Is 25 too old for medical school?

No, 25 is not too late to pursue medical school. Meeting the prerequisites of your chosen institution and having a genuine passion for learning are the key factors, rather than age.

What’s the lowest GPA med schools will accept?

Data indicates that most schools will not accept cumulative GPAs below 3.0, considering that for the 2022-23 admissions cycle, applicants had a median cumulative GPA of 3.62.

What is the lowest MCAT score accepted?

The lowest acceptable MCAT score depends on the specific medical school. Generally, most schools require MCAT scores above the average total, but some may consider lower scores with other strong application components.

What is medical school like?

Medical school is a rigorous and demanding program combining classroom learning with clinical experiences. It involves studying a wide range of subjects related to medicine as well as clinical rotations in hospitals.

What classes do you take in medical school?

In medical school, students take anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, pathology, and clinical medicine courses. The curriculum also includes hands-on clinical rotations in various specialties like surgery, pediatrics, internal medicine, and

What should I consider when choosing a medical school?

Factors to consider include reputation, location, specialties offered, faculty support, curriculum, facilities, tution and personal fit.

How many medical schools can I apply to?

You should apply to between 10-17 medical schools. This can help you focus your efforts on schools where you have a realistic chance of acceptance without overextending yourself.