The path to becoming a cardiologist is not for the faint-hearted but for those whose passion burns brighter than any challenge that comes their way. If the world of cardiology is where your heart truly yearns to be, and if you possess the unwavering work ethic and determination to see it through, the rewards that await are genuinely extraordinary. 

In this blog, we’ll explore the remarkable journey of becoming a cardiologist, from the early steps of education to the intense training and specialization required. So, if you want to know how long it takes to become a cardiologist, keep on reading. 

What Is a Cardiologist?

Cardiology is a field that deals with matters of the heart (literally). It’s a discipline that demands a deep commitment, rigorous training, and a genuine love for helping others. That said, a cardiologist is a highly specialized medical professional dedicated to the complicated world of heart and cardiovascular system health. Cardiologists work hard to successfully diagnose, treat, and prevent disorders and conditions related to the heart. 

What Does a Cardiologist Do?

Cardiologists have multifaceted roles, beginning with assessing patients who present heart-related symptoms. They employ various diagnostic tools, such as electrocardiograms (ECGs) and echocardiograms, to meticulously evaluate heart function and interpret results for precise diagnosis. 

Their responsibilities extend to developing comprehensive treatment plans encompassing prescribing medications, suggesting lifestyle modifications, or performing intricate procedures like angioplasty and heart catheterizations. Additionally, they play a vital role in educating patients about risk factors for heart disease and strategies for prevention.

How Long Does It Take To Become a Cardiologist?

Becoming a cardiologist is a long and challenging journey, spanning approximately 11 to 15 years of education and training beyond high school. It requires a long commitment to learning, dedication, and a genuine passion for improving cardiovascular health and patient outcomes. 

Earn a bachelor’s degree

Becoming a cardiologist begins with earning a bachelor’s degree, typically involving four years of undergraduate education at a college or university. During these four years, many aspiring cardiologists choose science-related fields like biology, chemistry, or pre-medicine. Academic excellence during this phase is crucial for gaining admission to medical school, so focusing on good grades and a strong foundation in the sciences is essential.

During these undergraduate years, you acquire scientific knowledge and develop critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication skills. You will gain an understanding of basic biology, chemistry, and human physiology, which form the cornerstone of your future medical studies. 

This period also offers the opportunity to explore personal interests and cultivate a well-rounded skill set, including leadership, teamwork, and empathy.

Complete a medical school program

After obtaining your undergraduate degree, the next step involves advancing your education by enrolling in medical school, which typically involves a highly competitive application process. You must complete the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) to qualify for medical school admission. 

Medical school is a process that will add another four years to the process of becoming a cardiologist. During these years, you will study anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology and gain practical experience through clinical rotations in various medical specialties, including surgery, pediatrics, and internal medicine.

Medical students also need to pass the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). This examination includes three sequential steps, each taken at different points in your medical school journey.

Complete a medical residency program

Following medical school, if you want to specialize in cardiology, you must complete a residency program in internal medicine. An internal medicine residency typically lasts three years. During this period, residents work in hospital settings and outpatient clinics, diagnosing and treating various medical conditions. Here, they also learn to provide primary care to adult patients and develop essential clinical skills. 

Secure a fellowship

The next step to becoming a cardiologist is to secure a cardiology fellowship. Cardiology fellowships typically span three to four years, depending on the program. You receive specialized training in diagnosing and treating heart and vascular diseases during this time. 

You should expect to work closely with experienced cardiologists and gain hands-on experience in various procedures, including cardiac catheterization, angioplasty, echocardiography, and electrophysiology studies.

The fellowship program represents a pivotal stage in your journey toward becoming a cardiologist. It provides a valuable opportunity to expand upon your existing knowledge and general training, pawing your way into the complex world of cardiology. Upon completing the fellowship, you’ll have collected the essential expertise to embrace the cardiologist role fully.

Obtain a medical license

Almost there! But, before you can practice as a cardiologist, you must complete yet another step—obtaining a medical license. The requirements for medical licensure vary by location. Still, they usually involve passing a standardized medical licensing examination, such as the United States Medical Licensing Examination.  Fortunately, you will have passed this during your medical school. However, if you haven’t, you will be eligible to do so even after graduating from medical school. 

Become board certified

As a final step, to demonstrate expertise in cardiology, most cardiologists pursue board certification from organizations like the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM). This step involves passing a rigorous examination specific to cardiology, which tests the knowledge and clinical skills related to heart and vascular diseases. Board certification is crucial as it demonstrates expertise and is often necessary for employment in hospitals, academic institutions, and private practice.

Factors That Can Affect the Length of Your Training


Decisions regarding subspecialty training, research, and the choice of your practice location may extend your training timeline but can ultimately lead to a more specialized and rewarding cardiology career.

Subspecialty training

As a future cardiologist, you might decide to specialize further in a specific area of cardiology, such as interventional cardiology or electrophysiology. This specialization requires additional fellowship training, which can extend your training by 1-2 years beyond your general cardiology fellowship. While this adds time, it also enhances your expertise in your chosen area, making you a more competitive candidate for specialized positions.

Research and publications

If you’re passionate about research or aspire to an academic career, you might also dedicate extra time during your cardiology fellowship to research projects. Engaging in research, publishing scientific papers, and presenting at conferences can be time-consuming, but it’s valuable for your career. 

The time spent on research varies based on the complexity of your projects and the publication process. Some cardiologists spend several years as research fellows before transitioning to clinical practice.

State and licensing requirements

Your journey to becoming a cardiologist is also influenced by the state where you plan to practice. Each state has its specific medical licensure requirements. Some states may have additional licensing exams or criteria beyond what’s needed for board certification. Therefore, to become a licensed practitioner, it’s essential to research the licensing prerequisites in your chosen state. Not meeting these state-specific requirements can affect the time to start practicing cardiology.

The Bottom Line

Becoming a cardiologist is a lengthy and demanding journey, but it is advantageous for those passionate about cardiovascular health care. To become a cardiologist, one must complete a bachelor’s degree, followed by medical school, an internal medicine residency, and a cardiology fellowship. After obtaining board certification and licensure, continuing education is essential, with opportunities for further specialization in subspecialty areas such as interventional cardiology or electrophysiology for those interested in advanced expertise.

Frequently Asked Questions

Do cardiologists perform surgery?

No, cardiologists do not perform heart surgeries. They specialize in non-invasive and minimally invasive treatments for heart conditions, while cardiac surgeons handle surgical procedures like bypass grafting and valve replacements.

Is cardiology competitive?

Yes, cardiology is a highly competitive field in the medical profession. The application process for cardiology fellowships can be pretty competitive, and candidates often need strong academic credentials, research experience, and outstanding letters of recommendation to secure a position.

What are the essential skills and qualities required for a career in cardiology?

Cardiologists need strong analytical and problem-solving skills and attention to detail. Communication skills are essential for patient interactions, and empathy is crucial when dealing with individuals and families facing heart-related issues. Additionally, cardiologists must stay current with the latest medical research and technologies, so a commitment to lifelong learning is essential.

What is the job outlook and salary for cardiologists?

The job outlook for cardiologists is generally positive, with an increasing demand for cardiovascular care due to an aging population. Salary can vary based on location, experience, and subspecialization, but cardiologists typically earn a competitive income, with median salaries well above the average for healthcare professionals, at $421,330.