From being underrepresented in medical trials to facing disparities in research, historical gender biases have often overlooked the unique healthcare needs of women, and their health has been overshadowed. But today, we recognize the importance of addressing women’s health thoroughly and have witnessed the emergence of specialized branches within the medical field dedicated specifically to the well-being of women—obstetrics and gynecology. 

Understanding the distinction between obstetrics and gynecology is important, as they are both essential components of women’s healthcare. However, these terms are often used interchangeably, which can cause confusion about their specific roles. So read on as we explore the difference between obstetrics and gynecology, highlighting their unique roles in women’s healthcare.

What Is Obstetrics?

Obstetrics refers to the medical specialty dedicated to caring for pregnant women and managing childbirth. Practitioners within this field specialize in providing comprehensive prenatal care, monitoring the health of both the pregnant woman and the developing fetus, and addressing any potential complications that may arise during pregnancy or delivery. Its primary aim is to help guide individuals through the various stages of pregnancy, from conception to postpartum care, focusing on ensuring the well-being of both the mother and the newborn.

What Is Gynecology?

Gynecology is a branch of medicine centered on the health and well-being of the female reproductive system. Professionals in this field are trained to diagnose, treat, and prevent various conditions that can negatively affect the reproductive organs, including the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and breasts. The field plays a crucial role in promoting and maintaining the overall reproductive and sexual health of females across different stages of life.

Obstetrician vs. Gynecologist


While there is a degree of overlap between the two fields, each holds a unique focus and set of responsibilities. To better examine this difference between obstetrics and gynecology, let’s compare and contrast the roles of gynecologists and obstetricians as representative practicians for each field.

Scope of practice

The scope of practice is one of the key areas where obstetricians and gynecologists differ. Although they are both concerned with women’s health care, gynecologists primarily focus on non-pregnancy-related aspects of reproductive health, whereas obstetricians specialize in the management of pregnancy and childbirth. 

Gynecologists play a crucial role in family planning, offering contraceptive counseling and guidance throughout various stages of life, from adolescence to menopause. They address a diverse range of patients dealing with reproductive health concerns, including menstrual irregularities, gynecological infections, hormonal imbalances, and other conditions affecting the reproductive organs.

On the other hand, obstetricians help women through labor and delivery, ensuring a safe and healthy childbirth experience. So, their patient population includes those seeking prenatal care, guidance during pregnancy, and support throughout labor and delivery. While their primary focus is on expectant mothers, obstetricians may also be involved in the postpartum care of both the mother and the newborn.


Gynecologists and obstetricians follow a nearly identical educational journey. It starts with a bachelor’s degree, followed by a four-year medical school program, where aspiring doctors gain a broad understanding of medical sciences and patient care. After that, they enter a four-year residency program in obstetrics and gynecology, which is the foundation of their specialized training. Some may choose a slightly different path by completing a residency in family medicine before focusing on the intricacies of obstetrics or gynecology.

After completing their residency, gynecologists and obstetricians must make a critical decision regarding their professional focus. They can specialize exclusively in either gynecology or obstetrics, honing their expertise in one of these related but distinct fields. On the other hand, many prefer the comprehensive path of becoming an OB-GYN, where they can seamlessly navigate both fields.

Furthermore, the journey doesn’t have to end with residency. Gynecologists and obstetricians may opt for subspecialties through fellowship programs to enhance their proficiency in specific areas of women’s health. These subspecialties include a wide range of options, such as infertility, gynecologic oncology, reproductive endocrinology, adolescent gynecology, and family planning. During this time, these medical professionals refine their skills, deepen their knowledge, and stay up-to-date with the latest advancements in their chosen area of specialization, ensuring they provide the highest quality care to their patients.


The two professions share a foundation of core skills essential for providing comprehensive women’s healthcare. For example, communication skills are crucial for both, allowing these medical professionals to establish trust with patients, convey complex medical information, and foster a supportive doctor-patient relationship. Moreover, empathy and sensitivity are equally vital, especially when addressing intimate health concerns and guiding individuals through significant life events. A keen analytical mindset and attention to detail are crucial for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment planning, surgical procedures, and examinations in both professions. 

However, the distinction in skills between gynecologists and obstetricians becomes evident in their specific medical knowledge. Gynecologists possess a comprehensive understanding of the female reproductive system, covering a broad spectrum of women’s health issues. Their expertise extends to reproductive diseases, hormonal imbalances, and conditions unrelated to pregnancy, allowing them to address a diverse range of gynecological concerns. Additionally, gynecologists often prioritize proficiency in surgical techniques, as they may perform procedures such as hysterectomies, laparoscopies, or other gynecologic surgeries.

Conversely, although obstetricians possess a foundational understanding of the reproductive system, their knowledge is mainly focused on pregnancy-related conditions and the management of obstetric care. They emphasize skills tailored to guiding individuals through such a journey, including expertise in prenatal care, monitoring fetal development, and managing potential complications during labor and delivery. Strong decision-making skills are also critical during emergencies or when determining the most suitable birthing methods for each patient.

Work settings

Gynecologists and obstetricians often share common work environments in hospitals, medical clinics, and private practices. These settings provide a platform for delivering various services, from routine gynecological examinations to obstetric care. In hospital settings, they collaborate with multidisciplinary teams, including nurses, midwives, and other healthcare professionals, to provide comprehensive care to their patients.

The work environment for gynecologists typically involves more predictable hours, especially in private practices or clinics where routine gynecological services are the focus. However, those specializing in emergency medicine may experience less predictable schedules, as they need to be available for urgent gynecological surgeries and interventions.

For obstetricians, the nature of pregnancy and labor introduces an element of unpredictability. As a result, obstetricians may find themselves working longer hours, including evenings and weekends, to accommodate the variable timing of labor and delivery. The on-call aspect is particularly prominent for these professionals, as they must be prepared to respond promptly to laboring patients, emergencies, or unexpected complications.

Job responsibilities

Gynecologists and obstetricians share several core responsibilities, including patient education, counseling in sensitive health matters, and meticulous record-keeping. Both professions involve conducting examinations and administering tests, but with distinct focuses. For example, some day-to-day responsibilities of gynecologists include:

  • Prescribing medications
  • Advising patients on contraceptive options
  • Conducting diagnostic tests
  • Explaining test results to patients
  • Referring patients to other specialists when necessary
  • Screening for cancer in reproductive organs
  • Providing guidance on menopause and hormone replacement therapy

On the other hand, obstetrician responsibilities are centered around:

  • Helping patients create a birth plan
  • Evaluating a baby’s position in the uterus
  • Monitoring pregnancy through tests
  • Inducing labor when necessary
  • Coordinating with the rest of a patient’s birth team
  • Advising patients on fertility, prenatal care, and postpartum care
  • Managing high-risk pregnancies
  • Ensuring the safety and well-being of both the mother and the baby


Obstetricians, gynecologists, and their dual option, OB-GYNs, all have high salaries. Gynecologists earn an average of $199,301 annually, with a salary range of $149,000 to $279,000. On the other hand, obstetricians make even more, with an average of $211,438 annually and a salary range of $159,000 to $294,000. However, the combined specialty of OB-GYN shows a lower annual pay in comparison, with an average of $116,251, ranging from $87,000 to $162,000.

These salary figures reflect the financial benefits of these vital medical specialties, acknowledging the unique expertise required to provide comprehensive women’s healthcare, from prenatal care and childbirth to a wide range of gynecological services.

Job outlook

Lastly, obstetrics and gynecology are anticipated to experience a modest but steady growth rate, with an estimated 2% increase in job opportunities from 2022 to 2023. This growth will result in approximately 500 job openings within these specialized medical disciplines. The demand for obstetricians and gynecologists highlights the ongoing need for healthcare professionals dedicated to women’s reproductive health, pregnancy care, and related medical services.

Which One Should I Choose?

When considering a career in women’s healthcare, it is crucial to reflect carefully and ensure that your personal interests and professional goals are aligned. If the allure of guiding women through the transformative journey of pregnancy and childbirth resonates with you, a focus on obstetrics might be the path to pursue. On the other hand, if a broader spectrum of women’s reproductive health captivates your interest, including managing routine gynecological conditions, providing contraceptive guidance, and addressing reproductive diseases, a career as a gynecologist might be more fitting.

Taking into account lifestyle preferences is equally important, particularly in recognizing the potential for unpredictable hours in obstetrics due to the unpredictable nature of childbirth. Understanding your comfort level with such variations can significantly influence your decision-making process. Whether your passion lies in routine gynecological care or the intricacies of pregnancy and delivery, assessing where you find more personal fulfillment is essential.

Moreover, keep in mind that becoming an OB-GYN is an alternative, allowing you to combine obstetric and gynecologic expertise. This choice opens the door to a more versatile and holistic career, enabling you to cater to various women’s healthcare needs across different life stages. Ultimately, the decision hinges on aligning your professional aspirations with your personal preferences, ensuring a fulfilling and purpose-driven journey in the dynamic field of women’s healthcare.

The Bottom Line

Understanding the difference between obstetrics and gynecology is essential in appreciating their distinct yet interconnected roles in women’s healthcare. So, while obstetrics focuses on pregnancy and childbirth, gynecology encompasses the broader spectrum of reproductive health.

We encourage all aspiring medical professionals keen on contributing to the well-being of women at every stage to explore and choose our medical school to begin their journey. It is a gateway to the knowledge and skills necessary for excelling in obstetrics, gynecology, or the combined field of OB-GYN and becoming a proficient advocate for women’s well-being.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What does OB-GYN stand for?

OB-GYN stands for “obstetrician-gynecologist.” The term refers to a doctor specializing in both obstetrics and gynecology.

Are OB-GYN and gyno the same?

While both terms refer to aspects of women’s health, an “OB-GYN” specializes in both obstetrics and gynecology, whereas “gyno” is an informal abbreviation for “gynecologist,” referring specifically to a doctor who specializes in gynecology. 

What does a gynecologist do?

Gynecologists specialize in women’s reproductive health, conducting routine exams, addressing gynecological issues, and providing family planning and contraceptive guidance.

What is the difference between obstetrics and gynecology?

Obstetrics focuses on pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum care, while gynecology deals with the broader aspects of women’s reproductive health.

Are all gynecologists obstetricians?

No, not all gynecologists are obstetricians. Gynecologists may choose to specialize solely in women’s reproductive health without providing pregnancy-related care.

Is OB-GYN only for pregnancy?

No, OB-GYN encompasses both obstetrics and gynecology, addressing a wide range of women’s health needs, including routine gynecological care and pregnancy-related services.