In healthcare, aspiring medical professionals are presented with a myriad of opportunities to carve out their distinctive paths. The choices seem boundless, with more than 160 specialties and subspecialties in the United States and nearly 40 in Canada. However, this abundance highlights the importance of making a well-informed decision about the direction one wishes to steer their medical career.

Choosing a specialty involves considering not just the medical field’s vastness but also reflecting on which patients and conditions resonate most with one’s passion and commitment. To aid in this crucial decision-making process, we will provide a comprehensive list of doctor specialties, exploring the key responsibilities of each. So, keep reading and see which doctor specialties intrigue you most.

Allergy and Immunology

Allergy and Immunology is a specialized medical field focused on diagnosing and managing conditions related to the immune system. Physicians in this discipline address allergic reactions to allergens, treating patients with conditions like allergic rhinitis, asthma, eczema, and autoimmune disorders. Their responsibilities include conducting allergy testing, developing treatment plans, and administering immunotherapy to alleviate adverse immune responses.

The residency period for Allergy and Immunology typically lasts 2-3 years.


Anesthesiology is a vital medical specialization dedicated to pain management and administering anesthesia for various surgical and medical procedures. Anesthesiologists play a pivotal role in ensuring patient comfort and safety during surgery. Their primary responsibilities encompass administering anesthesia, monitoring patient vital signs, and managing postoperative pain to facilitate optimal recovery.

Anesthesiology residencies generally span four years.

Colon and Rectal Surgery

Colon and Rectal Surgery diagnoses and treats disorders affecting the colon, rectum, and anus. Physicians in this discipline perform surgeries related to colorectal conditions, including, but not limited to, cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, they provide preventive care, conduct screenings, and manage various colorectal conditions.

Colon and Rectal Surgery residencies usually last for five years.


Cardiology is a medical specialization focused on the heart and circulatory system. Cardiologists treat heart-related conditions such as heart disease and cardiovascular disorders. Their responsibilities include performing diagnostic tests, developing treatment plans, and providing interventions like angioplasty or heart surgery when necessary.

Cardiology requires three additional years of training after completing an internal medicine residency.


Dermatology is considered to be one of the hardest doctor specialties. This medical field is dedicated to diagnosing and treating skin conditions. Dermatologists address issues like skin infections, allergies, and disorders. They perform skin examinations, prescribe medications, and may conduct procedures like skin biopsies or surgeries.

Dermatology residencies typically take four years to complete.

Emergency Medicine

Emergency Medicine is a branch of medicine dealing with urgent and critical care. Emergency physicians handle a wide range of acute conditions, injuries, and traumas. Their responsibilities include rapid diagnosis, stabilization, and treatment of patients in emergencies, often in hospital emergency departments.

Emergency Medicine residencies typically last 3-4 years.

Family Medicine

This primary care specialty provides comprehensive healthcare to individuals and families. Family physicians diagnose and treat various medical conditions, emphasizing preventive care. They are tasked with conducting regular check-ups, administering vaccinations, overseeing chronic illnesses, and making referrals to specialists as necessary.

Family Medicine residencies typically last three years.

Forensic Pathology

Forensic Pathology combines pathology and forensic science to investigate the cause of death. Forensic pathologists perform autopsies, analyze tissue samples, and determine the circumstances surrounding fatalities. They play a crucial role in legal investigations, providing insights into deaths due to accidents, homicides, or natural causes.

To become a Forensic Pathologist, individuals complete 3-4 years of Anatomic and Clinical Pathology residency, followed by a Forensic Pathology fellowship.

General Surgery

General Surgery involves surgical procedures for a broad range of medical conditions. General surgeons perform surgeries on the abdomen, digestive tract, and other organ systems. Their responsibilities include preoperative evaluations, conducting surgeries, and postoperative care.

The residency period for General Surgery is typically five years.

Genetics and Genomics

Genetics and Genomics focus on studying genes and their impact on health. Specialists in this field, such as genetic counselors, assess genetic risks, provide counseling, and conduct genetic testing. They play a crucial role in helping individuals understand and manage genetic conditions.

Genetics and Genomics training involves 2-3 years of combined residency and fellowship.

Hospice and Palliative Medicine

Hospice and Palliative Medicine is dedicated to providing compassionate care for patients with life-limiting illnesses. Physicians in this field focus on managing symptoms, addressing emotional and spiritual needs, and enhancing the quality of life for patients and their families. They collaborate with multidisciplinary teams to ensure comprehensive end-of-life care.

A 1-year fellowship is pursued after completing a residency in another specialty for those specializing in Hospice and Palliative Medicine.

Hospital Medicine

Hospital Medicine involves the care of patients admitted to hospitals. Hospitalists coordinate and manage the treatment of hospitalized individuals, collaborating with specialists and overseeing their medical care throughout the hospital stay.

Hospital Medicine fellowships generally last 1-2 years.

Internal Medicine

A primary care specialty, Internal Medicine focuses on preventing, diagnosing, and treating adult diseases. Internists, or internal medicine physicians, manage a broad spectrum of medical conditions, emphasizing non-surgical interventions. Their responsibilities include medical examinations, diagnosing illnesses, and developing treatment plans.

The residency period for Internal Medicine is typically three years.


Neurology is among the most challenging doctor specialties. This one specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the nervous system. Neurologists address conditions such as epilepsy, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. Their responsibilities include conducting neurological exams, interpreting diagnostic tests, and prescribing treatments for neurological disorders.

Neurology residencies usually last four years.

Neurological Surgery

Neurological Surgery, or neurosurgery, deals with surgical interventions for disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgeons perform surgeries on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Their responsibilities include evaluating patients, conducting surgical procedures, and providing postoperative care.

Neurological Surgery residencies span seven years.


Neuropsychiatry is a medical specialty that deals with mental disorders caused by brain injuries or illnesses. It combines principles of neurology and psychiatry to understand the relationship between the brain and behavior. It involves working with patients who have conditions such as traumatic brain injury, dementia, stroke, epilepsy, and other neurological disorders that can affect their mood, thinking, and behavior.

A residency in neuropsychiatry typically takes four years to complete after completing medical school. 

Obstetrics and Gynecology

Obstetrics and Gynecology focus on the reproductive health of women. Obstetricians offer care throughout pregnancy and childbirth, while gynecologists address reproductive health concerns. Their responsibilities include prenatal care, delivering babies, managing gynecological conditions, and performing surgeries like cesarean sections.

The residency period for Obstetrics and Gynecology is typically four years.

Ophthalmic Surgery

Ophthalmic Surgery involves surgical procedures related to the eyes. Ophthalmic surgeons, or ophthalmologists, perform surgeries to address conditions such as cataracts, glaucoma, and retinal disorders. Their responsibilities include preoperative assessments, performing surgeries, and postoperative care.

Ophthalmic Surgery residencies typically take three years.

Orthopedic Surgery

Orthopedic Surgery deals with the musculoskeletal system, addressing conditions related to bones, joints, muscles, and ligaments. Orthopedic surgeons perform surgeries like joint replacements and fracture repairs. Their responsibilities include diagnosing orthopedic conditions, conducting surgeries, and providing postoperative care.

Orthopedic Surgery residencies generally last for five years.


Otolaryngology, also known as Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Medicine, specializes in disorders of the head and neck. Otolaryngologists diagnose and treat conditions such as hearing loss, sinusitis, and throat disorders. Their responsibilities include conducting examinations, performing surgeries, and managing ENT-related issues.

Otolaryngology residencies usually last five years.


Pathology involves the study of diseases and their causes. Pathologists analyze tissues, cells, and bodily fluids to diagnose medical conditions. Their responsibilities include interpreting laboratory results, conducting autopsies, and providing insights into disease pathology.

Pathology residencies generally take four years to complete.



This specialization focuses on the healthcare of infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatricians provide preventive care, diagnose and treat childhood illnesses, and address developmental concerns. Their responsibilities include well-child check-ups, vaccinations, and managing pediatric health issues.

Pediatrics residencies typically last three years.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, commonly referred to as physiatry, focuses on enhancing and restoring functional abilities. Physiatrists diagnose and treat conditions affecting the musculoskeletal and nervous systems. Their responsibilities include developing rehabilitation plans, prescribing therapies, and facilitating recovery.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation residencies usually span four years.

Plastic Surgery

Plastic Surgery involves surgical procedures to enhance or reconstruct physical appearance. Plastic surgeons perform surgeries like cosmetic enhancements and reconstructive procedures. Their responsibilities include patient consultations, conducting surgeries, and postoperative care.

Plastic Surgery residencies generally take six years to complete.

Preventive Medicine

Preventive Medicine is primarily concerned with disease prevention and health promotion. Physicians in this field focus on population health, preventive interventions, and lifestyle modifications. Their responsibilities include public health initiatives, screenings, and developing strategies for disease prevention.

Preventive Medicine involves two years of combined residency and fellowship.


The psychiatry specialization undertakes the diagnosis and treatment of mental health disorders. Psychiatrists address conditions such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Their responsibilities include psychiatric evaluations, prescribing medications, and providing psychotherapy.

Psychiatry residencies typically last four years.


This specialization option involves the use of medical imaging techniques for diagnosis and treatment planning. Radiologists interpret images from X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs. Their responsibilities include reviewing diagnostic images, providing imaging reports, and collaborating with other healthcare.

Radiology residencies usually last 4-5 years.


Rheumatology involves diagnosing and treating autoimmune and musculoskeletal disorders. Rheumatologists address conditions like arthritis, lupus, and osteoporosis. Their responsibilities include conducting rheumatological exams, interpreting diagnostic tests, and developing treatment plans.

Rheumatology training involves 2-3 years of combined residency and fellowship.

Thoracic Surgery

Thoracic Surgery deals with surgical procedures related to the chest, including the heart and lungs. Thoracic surgeons perform surgeries such as bypass procedures and lung resections. Their responsibilities include patient evaluations, conducting thoracic surgeries, and managing postoperative care.

Thoracic Surgery residencies generally span 6-8 years.

Sleep Medicine

This next specialization focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders. Sleep specialists address conditions like sleep apnea and insomnia. Their responsibilities include sleep studies, diagnostic evaluations, and developing treatment plans to improve sleep quality.

For those specializing in Sleep Medicine, a one-year fellowship is pursued after completing residency in another specialty.


Urology is mainly focused on the urinary tract and male reproductive system. Urologists address conditions like kidney stones, prostate issues, and urinary tract infections. Their responsibilities include conducting urological exams, performing surgeries, and managing urological conditions.

Urology residencies typically last five years.

Vascular Surgery

Vascular Surgery deals with surgical interventions related to the circulatory system, particularly blood vessels. Vascular surgeons perform procedures such as angioplasty and vascular bypass surgeries. Their responsibilities include vascular assessments, conducting surgeries, and postoperative care.

Vascular Surgery residencies generally span 5-7 years.

The Bottom Line

As an aspiring medical professional, the multitude of specializations opens up a world of opportunities, each offering a unique avenue to significantly impact patients’ well-being. In navigating this sea of possibilities, it’s crucial to take your time, consider your options carefully, and reflect on the path that aligns most closely with your passions and aspirations for helping the world. 

Remember, choosing a medical specialty is a personal journey, and finding the one that resonates with you is a crucial step toward a fulfilling career. If you’re ready to embark on this rewarding journey, consider building a solid foundation at AUA School of Medicine. Explore the possibilities, discover your passion, and take the first step toward a meaningful and impactful medical career.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

How many doctor specialities are there?

According to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), there are more than 160 specialties and subspecialties in the US and nearly 40 in Canada. This extensive range of medical specialties allows healthcare professionals to specialize in various areas, addressing diverse medical needs and conditions.

What is the rarest type of doctor?

There isn’t one specific “rarest” type of doctor, but certain medical subspecialties are less common due to their highly specialized nature. Examples of relatively rare specialties include Nocturnists, Medical Virtualists, and Cancer Immunologist. These doctors focus on less common medical conditions, making their expertise less common within the broader medical field.