Every child deserves access to quality healthcare, guidance, and support, and a pediatrician plays a pivotal role in ensuring their well-being and development. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that since 1990, there has been significant progress in reducing childhood mortality worldwide. However, survival gains have slowed down significantly since 2010, and unless swift action is taken to improve health services and quality of care for children, many young lives will be unnecessarily lost.

If you’re passionate about ensuring the well-being of children and want to play a pivotal role in their growth and development, read on to discover how to become a pediatrician. This fulfilling profession offers the chance to provide essential healthcare and the privilege of being a source of comfort and support to many families. 

What Is a Pediatrician?

A pediatrician is a highly specialized medical professional dedicated to providing comprehensive care to children from infancy through adolescence. Their branch of medicine, known as pediatrics, encompasses a broad spectrum of healthcare services tailored to the specific needs of young patients, ranging from emergency care, cardiology, toxicology, behavioral pediatrics, and much more.

Pediatric services cover a wide range of preventive measures, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of various illnesses and conditions. Pediatricians thoroughly understand children’s unique physiological and developmental characteristics and provide tailored care to meet their needs.

What Does a Pediatrician Do?


Pediatricians play a crucial role in safeguarding and promoting the well-being of young patients, offering a wide range of medical services tailored to their unique developmental stages. Here are some of their key responsibilities:

  • Conducting routine check-ups and developmental assessments to monitor growth and milestones
  • Administering vaccinations to protect against various diseases
  • Responding to urgent medical needs and providing emergency care
  • Diagnosing and treating childhood illnesses, injuries, and medical conditions
  • Offering guidance on nutrition, diet, and healthy lifestyle practices
  • Providing parental support and advice on topics like breastfeeding, sleep patterns, and behavioral issues
  • Referring patients to pediatric specialists for complex or specialized care

While general pediatricians cover a broad spectrum of pediatric care, there are also subspecialists like pediatric allergists, pediatric oncologists, and pediatric cardiologists with specialized roles in their respective fields of expertise. These specialists focus on particular areas of pediatric medicine and use their knowledge to address conditions such as allergies, childhood cancers, or heart-related issues with specific treatment approaches.

How To Become a Pediatrician 

Now that we have a better understanding of what a pediatrician is and their role in children’s healthcare, it’s time to explore all the steps to becoming a pediatrician.

While medical school stands as the cornerstone of becoming a doctor, including pediatricians, there are numerous preparatory measures both preceding and succeeding this phase.

Get a bachelor’s degree

To become a pediatrician, one must first obtain a bachelor’s degree, preferably in a scientific field such as biology, human anatomy, or medicine. Aspiring pediatricians can also choose a pre-medical degree program or major to gain the required knowledge. This path typically covers essential subjects such as nutrition, developmental science, anatomy, physiology, chemistry, biochemistry, and biology, which fulfills most medical school prerequisites.

Enrolling in courses related to childhood development, family and child sciences, and child psychology is also beneficial. These classes equip students with valuable skills and knowledge vital for a career in pediatrics. Additionally, active participation in student clubs, internships, and extracurricular activities during this time can enhance the chances of securing admission into a reputable medical program.

Study and pass the MCAT

Taking the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is crucial for becoming a pediatrician. This computer-based standardized exam evaluates one’s aptitude and readiness for medical school by testing students on physical and biological sciences, verbal reasoning, and writing skills. 

Scoring well on the MCAT is crucial for gaining admission to a medical school. It indicates a candidate’s proficiency in foundational sciences and readiness to pursue the rigorous medical education required to become a pediatrician.

Complete a four-year medical school program

Medical school’s four-year program is designed to provide aspiring physicians with an in-depth understanding of the intricacies of human health and medicine. Students explore various subjects within this period, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, biochemistry, microbiology, and pharmacology. Additionally, a clinical component is integrated, allowing students to observe and interact with patients under the guidance of experienced medical professionals.

This hands-on experience is crucial in developing essential physician skills, like patient examination, interviewing, and treatment. Moreover, medical school lays the groundwork for specialized knowledge in pediatric medicine, offering crucial insights into providing preventative care and addressing the unique healthcare needs of children.

Complete a medical residency program 

Next comes the residency program. This specialized training period follows the completion of pediatrician schooling and typically spans three years.

Aspiring pediatricians gain invaluable hands-on experience in clinical settings during this phase by observing and working closely with experienced physicians. This environment allows them to apply theoretical knowledge acquired during pediatrician school years to real-world scenarios and learn to navigate various clinical environments, from hospital-based pediatric intensive care units to community health centers.

Through this exposure, aspiring pediatricians become proficient in addressing common health issues affecting children and acquire essential communication techniques for discussing medical matters with young patients as well as their families.

Secure a fellowship

Completing a fellowship program is an advanced step in becoming a pediatrician. This specialized training comes after completing medical school and a residency program. Unlike residency programs, a fellowship offers a more focused and in-depth education in a specific area of pediatric medicine. It provides opportunities to hone expertise in subspecialties like neonatal medicine, pediatric surgery, adolescent medicine, pediatric cardiology, pediatric neurology, or child psychiatry.

Although not mandatory, these programs benefit fellow doctors seeking to deepen their knowledge and skills in a specialized field. It enhances career prospects and equips practitioners with the advanced training needed to effectively address complex medical conditions in children. 

Become licensed

Afterward, aspiring pediatricians can apply for their medical license by taking the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), a three-part test spanning one to two days each. The USMLE covers essential medical knowledge necessary for independent practice. It includes anatomy, behavioral health, biochemistry, biostatistics, molecular and cell biology, genetics, immunology, microbiology, and other interdisciplinary topics.

Once they pass, students can seek licensure in their chosen state, keeping in mind that each state may have specific requirements. It typically takes a few months for states to approve the license.

Become board certified

Lastly, obtaining a certification from the American Board of Pediatrics is an optional achievement, signifying your outstanding expertise in the field. Being board-certified in pediatrics instills greater confidence in your abilities for your patients’ families as you commence your practice. It can also draw favorable notice from esteemed employers.

Essential Skills of a Pediatrician 


Succeeding as a pediatrician demands a combination of essential soft and hard skills. These attributes enable effective communication with young patients and their families, as well as proficient medical care.

Opting for a subspecialty within pediatrics will entail a shift in responsibilities, requiring a distinct set of skills tailored to the chosen area of expertise. Nevertheless, these are some of the traits and skills needed to be a pediatrician:

  • A deep understanding of pediatric medicine, including growth and development, common childhood illnesses, and treatments
  • Empathy and compassion to provide emotional support and understanding to young patients and their families
  • Expertise in accurately identifying and assessing various pediatric health conditions
  • Strong communication skills when conveying medical information to children and their guardians, as well as collaborating with other healthcare professionals
  • Ability to perform physical examinations, administer vaccinations, and carry out medical procedures with precision
  • Adaptability regarding the evolving needs and conditions of the patients
  • Showing patience and tolerance, key in building a rapport with young patients and helping them through their medical journey

Career Growth and Opportunities

The job outlook for pediatricians remains steady, with a positive trajectory in the foreseeable future. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the overall employment of doctors and physicians, which includes pediatricians, is projected to experience a 3% growth. This equates to the creation of tens of thousands of new job opportunities annually.

Beyond the general practice of pediatrics, various specialized avenues and leadership roles within the field offer diverse career prospects. Pediatricians may choose to pursue subspecialties such as pediatric surgery, pediatric neurology, or pediatric rheumatology, enabling them to focus on specific areas of expertise.

Additionally, opportunities abound for pediatricians to take on leadership positions within healthcare organizations, where they can influence policies and drive initiatives to enhance pediatric care. Academic roles involving teaching and research in medical institutions provide yet another avenue for pediatricians to contribute to the field while nurturing the next generation of healthcare professionals.

The Financial Perspective

Pediatricians generally enjoy a robust salary, reflecting the critical nature of their profession. According to data from the BLS, the mean annual wage for pediatricians stands at an impressive $203,240.


It’s worth noting, however, that salary ranges can vary based on several factors, including the industry in which one practices. For instance, the top-paying industries for pediatricians include local government, with an average salary of $236,850, followed by outpatient care centers at $225,370, and offices of physicians at $213,230. Moreover, working in medical and diagnostic laboratories can yield an average salary of $200,790.

Geographical location also plays a significant role in determining a pediatrician’s earning potential. States such as Mississippi, Alaska, New Hampshire, Texas, and Iowa tend to offer some of the highest average salaries in the field.

Challenges and Considerations

Being a pediatrician is a gratifying yet emotionally demanding profession. One of the most significant challenges is witnessing children in pain or distress. It’s undeniably difficult to see young patients battling illness or discomfort. However, this very empathy and compassion are what drive pediatricians to provide the best care possible.

Safeguarding a child’s health, growth, and development can be daunting, and decisions can sometimes weigh heavily. Effective communication with both the child and their worried parents requires patience and skill. Pediatricians must also deal with the demanding nature of the profession, often involving long and irregular hours, as emergencies can arise at any time. Yet, knowing that every effort is being made to alleviate suffering and promote a brighter, healthier future for these young lives makes every challenge worthwhile.

The Bottom Line

Becoming a pediatrician is not just a profession; it’s a commitment to safeguarding the most vulnerable members of our society. So, even if the pediatrician career path may seem demanding, it’s crucial to remember the immensely rewarding impact you’ll have on young lives and their families.

If you’re ready to take the next step, join our esteemed medical school, where dedicated educators and cutting-edge resources will guide you toward becoming a compassionate and skilled pediatrician.


How long does it take to become a pediatrician?

Becoming a pediatrician involves around 11 years of rigorous education and training, including completing a bachelor’s degree, medical school, and residency.

Is it hard to become a pediatrician?

Becoming a pediatrician can be challenging as the educational path is quite demanding, and the emotional aspect of caring for children when they’re ill or in pain can be quite taxing. However, for those passionate about pediatric care, the rewards outweigh the challenges.

Is the job of a pediatrician stressful?

Yes, it can be at times. Pediatricians typically face stress when dealing with high-stakes situations and long hours.

Is pediatrics a good career path?

Yes, pediatrics is considered a highly rewarding and fulfilling career path. It allows for meaningful connections and offers a high salary, making it an excellent choice for dedicated professionals.