Knowing a disease’s cause, origin, and nature is akin to holding the key to its cure. This is where the fascinating field of pathology steps in, helping us shed some light on the mysteries that lie within every disease.

If you’re curious about this field, read on and learn how to become a pathologist, as well as uncover much more about this rewarding career path.

What Is a Pathologist?

A pathologist is a specialized medical doctor primarily focused on studying body tissues and fluids by examining biological samples to uncover crucial information about a patient’s health. These professionals play a pivotal role in healthcare by overseeing the operations of hospital and clinical laboratories, ensuring accurate and efficient testing procedures.

What Does a Pathologist Do?

Pathologists undertake various responsibilities essential for accurate diagnosis and effective patient care. They play a crucial role in managing both hospital and clinical laboratories, ensuring these facilities operate smoothly and maintain high standards of precision.

Their day-to-day responsibilities depend on their specialty and exact role, but often include:

  • Conducting careful examination and interpretation of laboratory tests
  • Providing timely and accurate reports to ordering physicians to guide medical treatment and patient care
  • Histologically analyzing biopsy tissues collected during surgical procedures
  • Determining if biopsy samples contain indications of cancer or if surgery is necessary
  • Performing autopsies to determine the cause, manner, and mechanism of death, as well as identify or confirm diseases
  • Collaborating with other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive patient care
  • Staying updated on advances in medical technology and diagnostic techniques
  • Contributing to medical research and education by sharing knowledge and expertise with colleagues and students
  • Adhering to ethical and professional standards in the practice of pathology

How To Become a Pathologist

Becoming a pathologist involves a significantly rigorous and structured educational journey until earning the title of doctor and having the knowledge and skills needed to take on the responsibilities of the field. Below, we’ll help you understand how to get into pathology, one step at a time.

Get a bachelor’s degree

The first step is to attain a bachelor’s degree, preferably in biology or some other related science field. The coursework during this period covers a range of subjects, some prerequisites for medical school, that provide a solid basis for the more advanced concepts encountered in pathologist schooling years.

It is crucial for students to excel in their undergraduate studies as it not only enhances their academic credentials but also demonstrates their dedication to the field of pathology. 

Alternatively, aspiring pathologists can pursue combined degree programs such as a BA/MD or a BS/MD, which provide a streamlined pathway for students to earn an undergraduate degree and a doctorate.

Study and pass the MCAT

The next step is successfully conquering the MCAT (Medical College Admission Test). This standardized examination evaluates an individual’s knowledge of concepts that are fundamental to medical education, as well as various soft skills, through the following four sections:

  • Biological and biochemical foundations of living systems
  • Chemical and physical foundations of biological systems
  • Psychological, social, and biological foundations of behavior
  • Critical analysis and reasoning skills

Adequate preparation, including comprehensive review materials and dedicated study time, is crucial in achieving a competitive score. A high score on this test demonstrates proficiency in prerequisite knowledge and enhances the chances of acceptance into a distinguished medical program.

Complete a four-year medical school program

After securing a place in a respected pathology school, the next phase involves a four-year immersion in medical school, either an osteopathic medical program leading to a DO degree or an allopathic medical program culminating in an MD degree.

These years encompass a comprehensive curriculum, including subjects ranging from anatomy and physiology to clinical practice and medical ethics. During this time, students must also undertake critical national board examinations like the USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 or Level 1 and Level 2 of COMLEX-USA for osteopathy students.

Complete a medical residency program 

Upon graduation from medical school, aspiring pathologists enter a crucial pathologist training phase: the residency program. These programs typically last for four years. Although the specific emphasis of each residency program may vary depending on the hospital, they generally offer intensive training in two primary areas: anatomic and clinical pathology.

During this period, residents work closely with experienced pathologists, gaining hands-on experience in diagnosing diseases through examining tissue samples and laboratory tests. The residency program further refines students’ skills and prepares them for the responsibilities they will shoulder as qualified pathologists.

Secure a fellowship 

Aspiring pathologists also have the option to further specialize through a fellowship in a specific field of study. Most fellowships last for a year and allow individuals to explore a particular pathology area in more depth.

These programs are similar to residencies but focused on providing additional training to turn pathologists into experts in their chosen subfield, whether it be forensic pathology, dermatopathology, or another specialized area.

This experience enhances fellow doctors’ capabilities and expertise, setting them apart in the field of pathology.

Become licensed

To practice as a pathologist, one must obtain the necessary state licensure. The specific requirements for licensure may vary by state, but they typically include completing medical school and residency as well as passing the final USMLE Step or COMLEX-USA Level. 

Licensing assures that pathologists meet the highest standards of competence and professionalism, providing confidence to patients and colleagues alike.

Become board certified

Finally, the last step is achieving board certification. This certification attests to a pathologist’s proficiency, expertise, and commitment to upholding the highest standards in the field of pathology.

Board certification is a significant accomplishment and is often sought after by pathologists as a testament to their dedication and skill.

Essential Skills of a Pathologist


Like any other profession, pathologists also require a balance of technical and soft skills to thrive in their careers. Some of the technical pathologist skills include:

  • A thorough understanding of pathology, anatomy, and physiology
  • Proficiency in various laboratory techniques such as histology, cytology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular diagnostics
  • Ability to analyze tissue samples, blood smears, and other specimens to identify diseases and conditions
  • Familiarity with specialized medical terminology and the ability to interpret medical records
  • Expertise in examining tissue samples through microscopes to identify abnormalities
  • Proficiency in analyzing cellular specimens to detect diseases or abnormalities
  • Knowledge of genetic and molecular techniques to analyze DNA, RNA, and proteins for diagnostic purposes
  • Understanding of microbial organisms and their impact on health and diseases
  • Ability to interpret complex data, including statistics and research findings

Additionally, the following soft skills are also necessary:

  • Precision and accuracy in analyzing and interpreting samples
  • Strong communication skills
  • Empathy and compassion
  • Collaboration skills
  • Time management skills
  • Adaptability
  • Stress management
  • Willingness to continue learning

Career Growth and Opportunities

The job outlook for pathologists, encapsulated under the broader category of physicians, has an anticipated growth rate of 3 percent from 2022 to 2032, which aligns with the average for all occupations, according to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). On average, approximately 24,200 openings for physicians and surgeons are projected each year over the next decade, suggesting that there will be steady opportunities for pathologists entering the workforce.

Moreover, pathologists have the potential to specialize and diversify their career paths. Some may focus on areas such as forensic pathology, dermatopathology, or neuropathology, honing their expertise in specific areas of pathology. Others may pursue pathologist career paths in research institutions or academic settings, contributing to advancing medical knowledge and training future healthcare professionals. Additionally, some may take on leadership roles within healthcare organizations or become consultants for diagnostic laboratories, further expanding their career options. 

This versatility allows these professionals to find the pathology pathway that best suits their interests and strengths.

The Financial Perspective

In terms of finances, the career of a pathologist offers a highly lucrative path. According to data from the BLS, the mean annual wage for pathologists is $252,850, demonstrating the significant earning potential within this specialized medical profession.

Outpatient care centers lead as the top-paying industry, offering a mean annual wage of $385,160. Then, medical and diagnostic laboratories follow, with a yearly wage averaging $291,350, highlighting the critical role of pathologists in diagnostic processes. Offices of physicians and state government positions, excluding schools and hospitals, also offer competitive compensation, with a mean annual wage of $265,760 and $198,740, respectively.

For pathologists seeking geographic flexibility, states such as Arizona, Missouri, Minnesota, Indiana, and Arkansas stand out as the top-paying states, offering not only promising earning potential but also excellent healthcare ecosystems.

Challenges and Considerations

Becoming a doctor, let alone a pathologist, is no easy feat. Here’s a breakdown of the hurdles along the way:

  1. Education Marathon: It’s a long educational ride from college and medical school to specialized training.
  2. Testing Times: You’ll have to pass tough exams to get licensed as a medical professional.
  3. Pathologist’s Path: Special training to deeply understand diseases and make accurate diagnoses is a must for pathologists.
  4. From Books to Bedside: Shifting from studying to actual practice has its own hurdles.
  5. Not Just Lab Coats: Pathologists do more than just lab work. They need to communicate well with other doctors and patients, too.
  6. Accuracy at Speed: Working quickly yet accurately in busy clinical settings is a skill that needs mastering.
  7. Staying Updated: The medical field is always advancing. Keeping up with new knowledge and technologies is crucial.

Despite these challenges, with enough passion, hard work, and good time management, the dream of becoming a pathologist is very much attainable.

The Bottom Line

Having gained an understanding of the significance of pathology in unraveling the complexities of diseases and the requirements to join this field, we encourage you to take the next step: join our esteemed medical school and become a part of the future of healthcare.


How long does it take to become a pathologist?

Becoming a pathologist takes approximately 12-13 years of education and training after high school.

Is a pathologist a DO or MD?

A pathologist can hold either an MD or DO degree. The important part is completing the necessary medical education and training.

Is pathology a hard residency?

Pathology residency involves in-depth study of diseases, laboratory techniques, and diagnostic processes; therefore, it can be challenging, but it is also intellectually stimulating and gratifying for those passionate about the field.

Can you be a pathologist without an MD?

While it’s possible to work in fields like laboratory technology or research without an MD, to practice as a pathologist, and to make clinical diagnoses, an MD or DO degree is typically required.

Is the job of a pathologist stressful?

Like many medical professions, being a pathologist can be demanding and, at times, stressful. The responsibility for accurate diagnoses and the critical nature of pathology in patient care can lead to high-pressure situations. Effective stress management and a supportive work environment are essential.

Is pathology hard?

Pathology is considered a challenging field due to the depth of knowledge and technical skills required. However, it can also be enriching for individuals with a strong interest in the subject matter and a dedication to learning.

Is pathology a good career path?

Pathology is an excellent career path for individuals who are interested in studying diseases, have a keen eye for detail, and enjoy working in a laboratory setting. It offers opportunities for research, teaching, and making significant contributions to patient care and medical knowledge. Additionally, the field provides competitive salaries and job stability.