In a world where vision impairment affects a staggering 2.2 billion people globally, the significance of eye care and health cannot be overstated. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), at least 1 billion of these cases could have been prevented or are yet to be addressed. Amidst the array of healthcare professionals dedicated to eye well-being, two prominent figures stand out: obstetricians and ophthalmologists. These professionals play critical roles in ensuring the health of our eyes, albeit in distinct ways.

As we put the roles of optometrist vs. ophthalmologist head-to-head, we’ll explore their similarities and differences in order to grasp the integral part they both play in addressing and preventing vision impairments.

What Is an Optometrist?

Optometry is a healthcare field primarily focusing on the comprehensive examination, diagnosis, and treatment of visual and ocular disorders. Here, optometrists emerge as highly trained and licensed professionals, distinct from medical doctors but equipped with specialized expertise in eye care. They play a crucial role in assessing and preserving overall eye health, employing their skills to detect and address a spectrum of visual impairments and ocular conditions.

What Is an Ophthalmologist?

Ophthalmology is a medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, and surgical intervention of disorders and diseases related to the eyes and visual system. Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who have completed extensive training and education in both medical and surgical aspects of eye care. They possess the expertise to manage a wide range of eye conditions, such as cataracts, glaucoma, retinal disorders, and corneal diseases.

Optometrist vs. Ophthalmologist


To differentiate between optometry and ophthalmology, we will compare optometrists and ophthalmologists across several domains, including their scope of practice, salary, and job outlook. The aim is to understand the factors that shape their respective roles in the field of eye health.

Scope of practice

While both professions focus on vision issues, ophthalmologists’ scope is broader, allowing for comprehensive care across a diverse spectrum of eye health concerns, in contrast to the more limited scope of optometrists.

Optometrists evaluate and maintain overall eye health, conducting thorough eye exams to diagnose and address common vision concerns such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. They are authorized to prescribe corrective lenses such as glasses and contact lenses and can also provide vision therapy. However, their practice does not extend to surgical interventions. 

On the other hand, ophthalmologists undergo extensive training, enabling them to diagnose and manage intricate eye conditions and diseases, even those necessitating surgical procedures like cataract removal, laser eye surgery, and retinal interventions. They also handle advanced eye conditions such as macular degeneration, retinal detachment, and corneal diseases. 


At the beginning of their journeys, both optometrists and ophthalmologists share standard educational foundations. They typically start with a bachelor’s degree in a related field, such as biology or pre-medicine, and then both specialties proceed to complete four years of medical school.

The divergence in education and training becomes apparent throughout and after medical school. After obtaining their Doctor of Optometry (OD) degree from medical school, optometrists can undergo clinical training to enhance their diagnostic and patient care skills through a residency or internship program; however, it is optional.

In contrast, after gaining their Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree, ophthalmologists must continue a more extensive and varied postgraduate journey. Following medical school, they undertake a residency in ophthalmology, lasting three years, with the first year being a transitional or preliminary year, possibly involving rotations in different medical specialties. This phase equips ophthalmologists with the ability to diagnose and manage a broad spectrum of eye conditions and diseases and perform surgical interventions.

So, both optometrists and ophthalmologists undergo thorough education and training. However, with approximately 11 years of schooling, ophthalmologists acquire extensive surgical expertise through specialized medical training, whereas optometrists can begin practicing after about 7-8 years of education.


Professionals in optometry and ophthalmology share some fundamental skills crucial for effective eye care. Firstly, they need strong communication skills to interact with patients, explain diagnoses, and provide treatment plans. Additionally, keen attention to detail is essential for accurate assessments during eye examinations, and both professions require a commitment to staying updated on advancements in eye care and maintaining empathy for patients’ concerns.

However, specialists in both fields also prioritize different skills and traits needed to fulfill each role’s daily responsibilities. For example, some other optometrist skills include:

  • Expertise in determining eyeglasses or contact lens prescriptions.
  • Ability to prescribe and manage corrective lenses.
  • Proficiency in implementing vision therapy for visual disorders.
  • Capability to identify and address common eye conditions like glaucoma and cataracts.
  • Skill in educating patients on eye health and preventive measures.

Likewise, ophthalmologists prioritize the following capabilities:

  • Mastery in performing various eye surgeries, such as cataract surgery and laser procedures.
  • Advanced skills in diagnosing and treating complex eye diseases, including retinal and corneal conditions.
  • Ability to handle eye emergencies and traumas requiring immediate attention.
  • Expertise in administering specialized treatments like injections for retinal diseases.
  • Collaboration with other medical specialists for comprehensive patient care.

Work settings

Ophthalmologists typically operate in hospital clinics, offering specialized medical and surgical eye care. They may also be found in specialized surgical centers, performing a diverse range of eye surgeries due to their surgical expertise. On the other hand, optometrists usually work in optometric clinics, focusing on routine eye exams and vision correction. They may also collaborate with optical retail chains for broad accessibility.

Some optometrists may choose to work in educational institutions, combining clinical practice with teaching and research. In contrast, some ophthalmologists engage in research activities at institutions, contributing to advancements in the field. So, while both professions can share foundational work settings, specialized environments illustrate each professional’s distinct application of skills.

Job responsibilities

Both professions play a role in maintaining overall eye health, emphasizing preventive measures, and educating patients on healthy eye care practices. They engage in direct patient interaction, conducting examinations, discussing findings, and addressing patient concerns. However, because their scope of practice diverges, so do their day-to-day responsibilities.

On the one hand, optometrists focus on:

  • Conducting comprehensive eye exams to assess visual acuity and screen for eye conditions.
  • Prescribing eyeglasses or contact lenses in order to correct refractive errors.
  • Identifying and managing common eye conditions such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.

On the other hand, ophthalmologists are more concerned with:

  • Diagnosing and treating many eye diseases, including glaucoma, macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.
  • Performing various eye surgeries, such as cataract surgery, laser eye surgery, and retinal procedures.
  • Handling emergency cases and traumas affecting the eyes, providing immediate and specialized care.
  • Administering specialized treatments, including injections for retinal diseases and laser therapies.


When it comes to salaries, there is a notable distinction between optometrists and ophthalmologists. This considerable difference can be attributed to the specialized role of ophthalmologists, who serve as surgeons and undergo additional years of extensive training beyond medical school. 

Optometrists, while highly skilled in eye care, are technically not medical doctors, and, as a result, they tend to have a lower earning range than their surgical counterparts in ophthalmology. They earn an estimated total pay of $146,594 annually and salaries ranging from $112k to $193k annually. Conversely, ophthalmologists command a total pay of $233,785 per year, with salaries ranging from $175k to $325k per year.

Job outlook

In terms of job outlook, the future appears promising for both optometrists and ophthalmologists, but with distinct growth rates.

Employment of optometrists is projected to experience a substantial 9% increase from 2022 to 2032, indicating a much faster-than-average growth rate compared to all occupations. The projections suggest an average of about 1,700 job openings for optometrists each year over the decade, reflecting the increasing demand for comprehensive eye care services.

On the other hand, the job outlook for ophthalmologists shows a 4% increase during the same period, with an estimated 500 new job openings. While the growth rate for ophthalmologists is slightly lower, it still indicates a steady demand for their specialized surgical expertise and medical care.

Which One Should I Choose?

Optometry might be your preferred path if you are drawn to a career centered around patient care, prescribing corrective lenses, and managing common eye conditions. On the other hand, if you believe you’ll find fulfillment through a more extensive medical approach, surgical interventions, and managing complex eye diseases, ophthalmology could be the right fit.

In addition, you need to consider the years of education and training needed for each; optometry typically requires a shorter educational path, while ophthalmology involves more extensive training. Evaluating how each aligns with your schedule and lifestyle is also important. Finally, do not forget to factor in the potential salary associated with the specialized skills acquired through additional training.

It’s essential to recognize that both fields offer rewarding careers, and there is no wrong choice. Your decision should reflect your passion, ensuring a fulfilling and successful professional life.

The Bottom Line

All in all, the distinction between ophthalmology’s emphasis on eye health and optometry’s dedicated focus on eye care highlights the vital role each plays in preserving and enhancing vision. Both professions offer distinct yet equally impactful career paths, contributing to the well-being of millions facing vision challenges.

Now equipped with a clearer understanding of the nuances between these fields, if you find yourself drawn to the intricacies of eye health or the personal connections formed through routine care, you’re well on your way to choosing the path that resonates with your passion. For those inspired to embark on a rewarding journey in eye care or health, consider exploring our medical school. Begin your transformative educational experience here at the American University of Antigua, shaping the future of eye care, one patient at a time. Because, after all, in the world of vision, the difference is not just seen but felt.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is an eye doctor called?

An eye doctor is commonly referred to as either an optometrist or an ophthalmologist.

Is an optometrist a doctor?

Yes, an optometrist is a doctor but not a medical doctor; they hold a Doctor of Optometry degree.

What is the difference between an optometrist and an ophthalmologist?

The main difference between these two professions lies in their scope of practice; optometrists focus on routine eye care, while ophthalmologists are medical doctors specializing in eye health, including surgery.

What are the three types of eye doctors?

The three types of eye doctors are optometrists, ophthalmologists, and opticians.

Should I see an ophthalmologist or an optometrist?

The choice between seeing an ophthalmologist or an optometrist depends on your eye health needs; optometrists are suitable for routine care, while ophthalmologists, with a broader scope, handle more complex cases, surgeries, and medical interventions.