Among the many medical specialties, specific disciplines often intertwine, leading to occasional confusion in distinguishing their distinct domains. This fusion is particularly evident in fields like oncology and gynecology, where their seamless integration can challenge the differentiation of their scopes.

Similarly, the fields of hematology and oncology maintain distinctive identities that merit exploration while sharing some common ground. It’s essential to compare and contrast the two in order to explore the intricacies and unravel the areas that set them apart. So, read on and find out the difference between hematology and oncology, as well as what each field entails.

What Is Hematology?

Hematology is a specialized medical field that focuses on investigating the origins, prognosis, management, and prevention of diseases associated with blood. This includes the comprehensive study and treatment of conditions impacting the generation of blood and its various constituents, including blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets, blood vessels, spleen, and the intricacies of coagulation.

What Is Oncology?

Oncology is another specialized branch of medicine. However, this one is dedicated to the comprehensive exploration of cancer. It aims to explore this disease’s origin, progression, treatment, and prevention generally through studying malignant tumors, seeking to understand their causes, prognoses, and the development of effective therapeutic interventions.

Hematologist vs. Oncologist


In order to understand the difference between hematology and oncology, it’s essential to analyze the roles of hematologists and oncologists across various dimensions, including the scope of practice, educational paA Guide to Hematology and Oncology Distinctionsthways, job responsibilities, and other aspects that signify the unique contributions of these medical specialties.

Scope of practice

A notable difference between hematologists and oncologists lies in the focal point of their practice—the circulatory system for hematologists and the broader spectrum of cancer for oncologists.

Hematologists’ scope of practice centers on studying and treating disorders affecting the blood and its components. These medical professionals address various conditions, including but not limited to hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, and blood clotting disorders. Moreover, they can, at times, address various blood cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Hematologists provide care for patients of all ages, from pediatric to geriatric populations, dealing with numerous ailments that impact vital elements within the circulatory system.

On the other hand, oncologists focus their expertise on the expansive realm of cancer through the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of malignant tumors. Oncologists cater to patients across a broad spectrum of cancer types, ranging from breast and lung cancer to hematological malignancies like leukemia. Their scope of practice extends beyond specific organ systems, encompassing the intricate landscape of cancer biology. 

So, while hematologists primarily deal with blood-related disorders, oncologists address a broader array of malignancies affecting various tissues and organs, requiring a multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Although there is an overlap in treating hematological malignancies, oncologists have a broader mandate covering a large group of cancer types throughout the body.


Both hematologists and oncologists undergo similar educational pathways, typically starting with a bachelor’s degree in pre-medicine, biology, anatomy, or other science fields, followed by four years of medical school. After completing medical school, both specialties require residency training and an optional fellowship program.

The differences in educational paths emerge in the specifics of the fellowships. Hematology fellow doctors concentrate on blood-related disorders, such as anemias, clotting disorders, and blood cancers. In contrast, oncology fellowships cover a broader spectrum, encompassing diagnosing and treating various cancers affecting different organs and systems. Oncologists, therefore, receive more extensive training in radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapies to address the diverse nature of cancer.


Professionals from both sides require specialized skills to diagnose and treat patients within their respective domains. While both specialties demand strong analytical and communication skills, the specific focus of their expertise determines the skills they prioritize. 

On the one hand, hematologists must be proficient in interpreting laboratory results related to blood components, including blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, and coagulation profiles. They must also possess strong analytical skills to diagnose and manage conditions such as anemias, clotting disorders, and blood cancers. Additionally, communication skills are crucial for explaining complex medical conditions to patients and collaborating with other healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, oncologists need to possess exceptional diagnostic skills to identify and classify various forms of cancer and be proficient in analyzing imaging studies and biopsies. Furthermore, they must have excellent communication abilities, as they frequently convey sensitive information to patients and work closely with multidisciplinary teams to create thorough treatment plans. It is also essential they keep up-to-date on the latest developments in cancer research and treatment methods.

Work settings

Hospitals, outpatient clinics, and private offices are typical work environments for hematologists and oncologists. In these environments, both professionals provide essential medical care and collaborate with multidisciplinary teams to address the diverse needs of patients.

However, although they often have shared work settings, there are still differences between hematologists and oncologists in their specific focus areas within these settings and beyond. Hematologists may be found in blood banks, ensuring the safety and adequacy of blood supplies by overseeing donations, conducting compatibility tests, managing transfusion services, and ensuring the availability of compatible blood products. In contrast, a subset of oncologists engages in cancer research, working in academic institutions or research centers to advance our understanding of cancer biology and develop innovative treatments.

Job responsibilities

Hematologists and oncologists share some responsibilities related to patient care, working collaboratively in similar settings to diagnose and treat medical conditions that significantly impact patients’ well-being. Both specialists aim to alleviate pain and improve the quality of life for their patients. However, despite these commonalities, distinctions emerge in their day-to-day responsibilities. 

Hematologists are primarily tasked with the following:

  • Diagnosing and managing disorders related to blood, such as anemias, clotting disorders, and blood cancers
  • Communicating with patients to gather data on symptoms
  • Analyzing blood samples
  • Interpreting laboratory results
  • Collaborating with other healthcare professionals
  • Prescribing appropriate treatments, which may include medications, transfusions, or bone marrow procedures

Conversely, oncologists focus on the diagnosis and treatment of various cancers, spanning different organs and systems, and their responsibilities encompass the following:

  • Using tests to determine a cancer’s stage
  • Interpreting imaging studies and biopsies
  • Formulating comprehensive treatment plans
  • Administering therapies like chemotherapy, radiation, immunotherapy, and targeted treatments
  • Tailoring their approach to the specific characteristics of each patient’s cancer


As crucial contributors to the field of medicine, both professions enjoy lucrative careers. A hematologist in the United States earns an estimated total pay of $210,387 per year, with a salary range spanning from $158,000 to $295,000. On the other hand, an oncologist commands an even higher average annual salary, with an estimated total pay of $249,149. The salary range for these professionals is also broader, ranging from $187,000 to $349,000. Both cases reflect variances based on experience, geographic location, and the specific institution of employment.

Job outlook

The job outlook for physicians and surgeons, including oncologists and hematologists, indicates a positive trajectory with a 3% growth anticipated from 2022 to 2032. This growth aligns with the increasing demand for specialized medical care and the aging population’s rising healthcare needs. Over this period, approximately 24,200 job openings within the physician and surgeon categories are projected to become available each year, signaling sustained opportunities for professionals in these fields.

Which One Should I Choose?

Choosing between a career as a hematologist or an oncologist involves careful consideration of individual interests, skills, and professional goals. If you are drawn to the complexities of blood-related disorders, a career as a hematologist might be an excellent fit. On the other hand, if the broad spectrum of cancer, including its diagnosis and treatment, resonates with your passion, pursuing a career as an oncologist might be more suitable.

Additionally, for those who find the intersection of both fields compelling, there’s also the possibility of becoming a hematologist oncologist specializing in the comprehensive care of patients with blood cancers. 

Ultimately, any choice you make can lead to an excellent career as long as the decision aligns with your interests and the specific impact you aspire to make in medical care.

The Bottom Line

While hematology and oncology share common ground in their commitment to addressing complex medical conditions, their distinctions are equally noteworthy. Hematologists specialize in the intricacies of blood-related disorders, offering expertise in conditions like anemia and clotting disorders. On the other hand, oncologists navigate the vast landscape of cancer, devising comprehensive strategies for diagnosis and treatment. Recognizing these differences is crucial for both aspiring medical professionals and individuals seeking specialized care. 

Regardless of the chosen path, medical education is crucial in all cases. So, consider joining our medical school and embrace the opportunity to make a difference in the world of healthcare.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Is hematology the same as oncology?

No, hematology and oncology are distinct medical specialties, although they share some overlap. Hematology primarily focuses on studying and treating blood disorders, whereas oncology is dedicated to diagnosing and treating cancer.

What is hematology-oncology?

Hematology-oncology is a combined medical specialty that integrates both hematology and oncology aspects.

Why would you see a hematologist-oncologist?

Individuals may seek the expertise of a hematologist-oncologist when facing conditions that involve both blood disorders and cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma. This specialized physician is equipped to diagnose and manage such complex cases, offering comprehensive care that includes approaches from both hematology and oncology.

Are all hematologists also oncologists?

No, not all hematologists are also oncologists. While there is some overlap in their training, hematology and oncology are distinct specialties.

What is the difference between a hematologist and an oncologist?

The main difference lies in their areas of focus. Hematologists specialize in studying and treating blood disorders, such as anemia and clotting disorders, along with blood cancers. Oncologists, on the other hand, concentrate on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, addressing malignancies affecting various organs and systems.