Understanding doctor salaries in Canada is crucial for anyone considering a career in medicine or studying the healthcare system. Doctors’ incomes vary significantly due to multiple factors, each contributing to diversity in earnings. This diversity underscores the importance of exploring all aspects of the field, leading us to a critical question: How much does a doctor make in Canada?

Different Payment Methods for Doctors in Canada

The Canadian payment system involves various payment methods, each with pros and cons. 

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Fee-for-Service (FFS)

One of the most prominent payment methods is FFS (Fee-for-service). With FFS, doctors get paid for each service they provide, such as consultations, tests, or procedures. Each service has a set fee, and doctors bill the government or insurance for every service.

How does it work? Doctors submit detailed bills listing each service they provide to a patient. The bill then goes to the payer, which could be the government or an insurance company, and the doctor gets paid based on the predetermined rates for those services.

The pros of FFS include the potential for high earnings, as doctors can increase their income by seeing more patients. However, the cons include an increased workload and administrative burden due to detailed billing requirements, which may lead to unnecessary tests or procedures to maximize earnings.

Alternative Payment Plans (APPs)

Considering the limitations of Fee-for-service along with other physicians’ concerns, most provinces have implemented alternative payment plans (APPs). 

While in FFS doctors are paid for each service they perform, like tests or treatments, APPs provide more stable income through methods like salaries, capitation, and blended payment models.

  • Salaried Positions: Doctors receive a fixed annual salary regardless of the number of services performed.
  • Capitation: Providers are paid a set amount for each patient they care for per period, regardless of how many services the patient receives.
  • Blended Payment Models: These combine elements of FFS with other methods, like bonuses for good patient outcomes.

Advantages of APPs:

  • More predictable and stable income for healthcare providers.
  • Can lead to more focus on patient care rather than performing unnecessary services.

Disadvantages of APPs:

  • Potentially lower earnings than FFS, especially if a provider could perform many services.
  • Less financial incentive to provide extra services, which could impact productivity.

Physician Salaries in Canada

The annual salary for physicians in Canada can vary, with factors such as province, specialty and experience impacting income. 

By Province

Doctor salaries in Canada vary significantly by province due to different healthcare funding models, cost of living, and demand for medical professionals. To illustrate the differences in earnings among different provinces, we will look at how much a general practitioner (GP) makes in each province.

  • Ontario: Ontario has a high demand for specialists, leading to higher salaries. A general practitioner based in Ontario makes $251,496 on average per year.
  • British Columbia: The average salary for GPs is about $178,810 annually, though it can go higher. The cost of living, especially in urban areas like Vancouver, influences earnings.
  • Alberta: This province offers some of the highest doctor salaries in Canada, averaging $231,407 annually for GPs, due to favorable government payment models.
  • Nova Scotia: Doctors in Nova Scotia earn an average of $199,325 per year. The lower cost of living and different healthcare structures affect their income.

These variations reflect the diverse economic and policy environments across the provinces.

By Specialty

Salaries among medical specialties vary greatly, influenced by the complexity of the work, the length of training required, and the demand for specific expertise.

High-paying specialties often involve more complex procedures, longer training, and higher stress levels. For example:

  • Surgeons: One of the highest-paid specialties, surgeons earn about $379,319 annually. They perform operations that require significant skill and precision. The critical impact of surgeons in saving patients’ lives also contributes to the monetary income, resulting in good financial stability if you become a surgeon.
  • Radiologists: With an average salary of around $250,012 up to $300,000, radiologists use imaging technologies like X-rays and MRIs to diagnose diseases. Their role is crucial in guiding treatment without being directly involved in surgery. Regardless, to become a radiologist means you can intertwine technology with science for the benefit of patients.
  • Cardiologists: If you want to become a cardiologist, you might expect to earn approximately $250,000 as well. Specializing in heart health, cardiologists manage heart diseases and conduct procedures like angioplasties. Their work is crucial in preventing heart failures and promoting health.

In contrast, lower-paying specialties often have shorter training periods and involve less invasive procedures:

  • Family Medicine: Doctors in family medicine earn around $200,000 to $250,000. They provide general care, manage chronic illnesses, and focus on preventive care.
  • Psychiatry: Psychiatrists focusing on mental health, earn about $220,000 to $260,000. They treat patients through counseling and medication rather than surgical procedures.

The difference in earnings reflects the levels of risk, education, and responsibility associated with each specialty.

By Experience

In Canada, a doctor’s experience significantly influences their career development and opportunities.

  • Entry-Level Doctors: At the beginning of their careers, doctors are just starting to apply their knowledge in real-world settings. They are learning to manage various medical situations and developing their ability to communicate with patients and other healthcare professionals. Their focus is on building a solid foundation and gaining the trust of their patients and colleagues.
  • Mid-Career Doctors: With several years of experience, doctors have a much clearer understanding of their medical practice. They are more confident in diagnosing and treating patients and may begin to specialize further in areas that interest them. This is a period of growth where doctors often take on more responsibility, perhaps leading teams or getting involved in more complex cases.
  • Late-Career Doctors: Doctors in the later stages of their career are highly experienced and often respected in their field. They have a wealth of knowledge and are seen as experts, sometimes consulted on challenging cases. Many also contribute to the medical community by mentoring younger doctors and may be involved in research or policy-making to improve healthcare systems.

Overall, as doctors progress in their careers, their roles evolve from learning and application to leadership and mentorship, reflecting their growing expertise and the respect they’ve earned.

Factors Affecting a Doctor’s Salary in Canada


Several key factors significantly influence a doctor’s salary in Canada. We will now look at how location, type of practice, specialization and working hours can all have a significant impact on the average salaries for doctors.


Urban Areas: Doctors in large cities and urban centers tend to earn more due to higher living costs and a larger number of patients. However, there is also more competition among doctors in these areas.

Rural Areas: In rural and remote locations, doctors may earn more incentives like bonuses or higher pay rates to attract them to underserved areas. These places often have a shortage of healthcare professionals, so doctors here can have a significant impact on community health.

Type of Practice

Private Practice: Doctors running their own practice have the potential to earn more, especially if they have a well-established patient base. However, they also face the costs and risks of running a business, including office expenses and staff salaries.

Hospital Employment: Doctors employed by hospitals typically have more stable incomes and benefits. They may earn less than those in private practice but don’t have the same overhead costs or administrative responsibilities.


Specialties in high demand, such as surgery, cardiology, or radiology, usually come with higher salaries due to the additional training required and the complexity of the care provided. Less specialized fields like family medicine or psychiatry often have lower salaries but provide more opportunities for work-life balance.

Work Hours

Doctors who work more hours, including overtime, night shifts, or are on call, generally have higher earnings. However, this also means less personal time and greater stress. Conversely, those who work fewer hours, perhaps focusing more on a work-life balance, will see a corresponding decrease in income.

Each of these factors plays a role in shaping how much a doctor earns, reflecting the diverse paths a medical career can take based on personal and professional choices.


Doctors working in Canada get paid via different payment methods, with each presenting benefits and challenges. Likewise, the salary expectations can vary depending on the province, specialty and experience. The type of practice, working hours, and location (rural or urban) can impact earnings, too. If you’re looking to gain a higher income, think about specializing as a surgeon or radiologist, among other medical specialties. Understand all these factors to make the best decisions for your medical career!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

What is the highest salary for a doctor in Canada?

The highest salary for a doctor in Canada can exceed $370,000 annually, particularly for specialists like orthopedic surgeons.

What is the lowest salary for a doctor in Canada?

The lowest paid doctors in Canada are family physicians, earning approximately $179,000 on average, per year.

How much do doctors make in the USA?

The average salary for doctors in the US depends on the specialty, but typically ranges from $205,000 for pediatricians to $449,000 for more specialized roles like pediatric surgeons.

Do doctors get paid more in Canada or the USA?

Doctors in the USA generally earn more than their counterparts in Canada, with factors like the healthcare system affecting their earnings.

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